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Carestream Peer-Reviewed Image Quality Research

Improved Visualization of Tubes and Lines in Portable Intensive Care Unit Radiographs: A Study Comparing a New Approach to the Standard Approach

David H. Foos, David F. Yankelevitz, Xiaohui Wang, David Berlin, Dana Zappetti, Matthew Cham, Abraham Sanders, Katherine Novak Parker, Claudia I. Henschke, In Press Corrected Proof , 15 November 2010, Clinical Imaging

Tube and line interpretation in portable chest radiographs was assessed using a new visualization method. When using the new method, radiologists' interpretation time was reduced by 30% vs. standard modality processing and window and level (23 vs. 33 s). For pulmonary ICU physicians, reading time was essentially unchanged. There was more than a 50% reduction in the use of inferential language in the dictation for both reader groups when using the new method, suggesting greater interpretation confidence.

Neonatal Chest Computed Radiography: Image Processing and Optimal Image Display

Don S, Whiting BR, Ellinwood JS, Foos DH, Kronemer KA, Kraus RA. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2007 Apr;188(4):1138-44.

The purpose of this study was to determine soft-copy image display preferences of brightness, latitude, and detail contrast for neonatal chest computed radiography to establish a baseline for future work on low-dose imaging. Observers preferred brighter images with higher detail contrast and narrow to middle latitude for soft-copy display compared with the typical screen-film hard-copy appearance. Future research on low-dose neonatal chest imaging will be facilitated by an understanding of optimal soft-copy image display.

Comparison of Edge Analysis Techniques for the Determination of the MTF of Digital Radiographic System.

Samei E, Buhr E, Granfors P, Vandenbroucke D, Wang X. Phys Med Biol. 2005 Aug 7;50(15):3613-25. Epub 2005 Jul 19.

The modulation transfer function (MTF) is well established as a metric to characterize the resolution performance of a digital radiographic system. Implemented by various laboratories, the edge technique is currently the most widespread approach to measure the MTF. However, there can be differences in the results attributed to differences in the analysis technique employed. The objective of this study was to determine whether comparable results can be obtained from different algorithms processing identical images representative of those of current digital radiographic systems. Five laboratories participated in a round-robin evaluation of six different algorithms including one prescribed in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62220-1 standard. The algorithms were applied to two synthetic and 12 real edge images from different digital radiographic systems including CR, and direct- and indirect-conversion detector systems. The results were analysed in terms of variability as well as accuracy of the resulting presampled MTFs. The results indicated that differences between the individual MTFs and the mean MTF were largely below 0.02. In the case of the two simulated edge images, all algorithms yielded similar results within 0.01 of the expected true MTF. The findings indicated that all algorithms tested in this round-robin evaluation, including the IEC-prescribed algorithm, were suitable for accurate MTF determination from edge images, provided the images are not excessively noisy. The agreement of the MTF results was judged sufficient for the measurement of the MTF necessary for the determination of the DQE.

Clinical Efficacy of Image Processing of Grid Detection and Suppression (GDS) in Computed Radiography.

Kato M, Nishimura S, Okamoto T, Vanmetter RL, Wang X, Ichiji H, Sawai M, Kiyooka M, Ikegami Y. Nippon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi. 2005 Aug 20;61(8):1158-69. Japanese.

In projection radiography, stationary grids are indispensable accessories to the improvement of diagnostic imaging. On the other hand, they are becoming one of the issues facing digital image processing. The lead foil that composes the grid can produce moiré on printed films and monitors according to the sampling interval at which the image is read by computed radiography (CR), creating a major obstacle to diagnosing images. The subject of this study on Grid Detection and Suppression (GDS) was the development of comprehensive image-processing software to detect and suppress grid lines automatically. Our results showed that applying GDS parameters 3 approximately 5 could provide a sufficient effect on suppression with little impact on images through the use of a multi-purpose grid (grid ratio 8:1, density 34 lp/cm) for general purposes. In projection radiography, it is expected that soft copy diagnosis will increase because the digital transition is proceeding, and the establishment of high-speed networks is becoming easier. Therefore, the digital environment is expected to improve and the choice of grids and monitors to expand, by using software such as GDS that does not require special skills.

Clustering Approach to Bone and Soft Tissue Segmentation of Digital Radiographic Images of Extremities

S. Kubilay Pakin, Roger S. Gaborski, Lori L. Barski, David H. Foos, Kevin J. Parker: J. Electronic Imaging 12(1): 40-49 (2003)

We present an algorithm for segmentation of computed radiography (CR) images of extremities into bone and soft tissue regions. The algorithm is region-based in which the regions are constructed using a region-growing procedure based on two different statistical tests. Following the region-growing process, a tissue classification method is employed. The purpose of the classification is to label each region as either bone or soft tissue. This binary classification goal is achieved by using a voting procedure that consists of the clustering of regions in each neighborhood system into two classes. The voting procedure provides a crucial compromise between the local and the global analysis of the image, which is necessary due to strong exposure variations seen on the imaging plate. Also, the existence of regions whose size is large enough such that exposure variations can be observed through them makes it necessary to use overlapping blocks during the classification. After the tissue classification step, the resulting bone and soft tissue regions are refined by fitting a second-order surface to each tissue, and reevaluating the label of each region according to the distance between the region and surfaces. The performance of the algorithm is tested on a variety of extremity images using manually segmented images as the gold standard. The experiments show that our algorithm provides a bone boundary with an average area overlap of 90% compared to the gold standard. © 2003 SPIE and IS&T.

Enhanced Visualization Processing: Effect on Workflow

Krupinski EA, Radvany M, Levy A, Ballenger D, Tucker J, Chacko A, VanMetter R. Acad Radiol. 2001 Nov; 8 (11):1127-33.

Soft-copy viewing of digital radiographs allows for image processing to improve visualization of anatomy and lesions, but it can take more time than film-based viewing. Enhanced visualization processing (EVP) was developed to increase the latitude of an image without reducing the vital contrast, potentially reducing the need for the radiologist to manipulate images. This study examined the influence of processing radiographic images with EVP on workflow in a picture archiving and communications system (PACS). EVP of chest images displayed on PACS monitors significantly improved workflow as measured by viewing time. EVP decreased use of window and level manipulation and zooming and the amount of time each one was used.

A Patient Image-Based Technique to Assess the Image Quality of Clinical Chest Radiographs.

Yuan Lin; Ehsan Samei; Hui Luo; James T. Dobbins III; H. Page McAdams; Xiaohui Wang; William J. Sehnert; Lori Barski; David H. Foos, Date: 16 March 2011Proc. SPIE Vol. 7961

The Effect of Defect Cluster Size and Interpolation on Radiographic Image Quality.

Karin Töpfer, Kwok L. Yip, ",  Proc. SPIE 7966 (2011), 79660V

On Image Rendering Methods for Improved Image Consistency in PACS Environment.

Zhimin Huo; Jane Zhang; Huihai Lu; John Wandtke; David Foos Date: 11 March 2010 Proc. SPIE Vol. 7628

Quantification of Radiographic Image Quality Based on Patient Anatomical Contrast-to-Noise Ratio: A Preliminary Study with Chest Images.

Yuan Lin; Xiaohui Wang; William J. Sehnert; David H. Foos; Lori Barski; Ehsan Samei, Date: 3 March 2010 Proc. SPIE Vol. 7627

Optimized, Operation and Offset Corrections for a Battery-Powered Wireless Digital X-ray Detector.

Karin Töpfer, John Dehority, Proc. SPIE 7258 (2009), 72583O

An Advanced System Model for the Prediction of the Clinical Task Performance of Radiographic Systems.

Karin Töpfer, Brian W. Keelan, Francisca Sugiro, ", Proc. SPIE 6515 (2007), 651512.


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